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who traveled the old spanish trail

who traveled the old spanish trail插图

Antonio Armijo

Where is the Old Spanish National Historic Trail?

The Old Spanish National Historic Trail runs between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Los Angeles, California. Over its years of use, it followed several different routes through New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and Southern California.

Who organized the Spanish Trail?

William R. Palmer of Cedar City, Utah organized the Spanish Trail Association in 1946. This group placed 100 markers along the trail between Santa Fe and Los Angeles, but faded soon after accomplishing this task in 1950.

What did the Spanish trade on the Old Spanish Trail?

The Old Spanish Trail’s main use, however, was as an extensive trade route between the markets of Los Angeles and Santa Fe. Sheep and high quality woolen goods, such as serapes and blankets, were traded for a surplus supply of horses and mules raised on California’s ranchos.

Why did emigrants take the Spanish Trail to California?

Emigrants from New Mexico began to take the Spanish Trail to California in the late 1830s, and outlaws used the trail to raid the California ranchos. Raids for Indian slaves became common, with victims sold at either end of the trail despite official condemnation of the practice.

What was the Spanish Trail used for?

The Old Spanish Trail’s main use, however, was as an extensive trade route between the markets of Los Angeles and Santa Fe. Sheep and high quality woolen goods, such as serapes and blankets, were traded for a surplus supply of horses and mules raised on California’s ranchos. These valued stock animals commanded premium prices in New Mexico and on the western frontier of the United States. With its location on the west coast, Los Angeles also extended the North American markets across the Pacific Ocean, linking the continent’s interior to Asiatic trade for the first time.

What was Antonio Armijo’s route through?

Antonio Armijo forged a route through the Mojave Desert on his way into Southern California. Pictured above: Trona Pinnacles in the Mojave Desert

Where is the trail that the mules used to travel?

Today, remnant traces of the trail remain where visitors can witness evidence of the route’s important impact on the West. Throughout New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado, expanses of packed and eroded ground still mark the road where hundreds of fast trotting mules and their tired muleteers once traversed the high country on their way to California.

What is Santa Fe known for?

Santa Fe retains much of its historic fabric related to its days of major western trade. The Santa Fe Plaza at the center of town was once a teeming hotspot for trade and social interaction as it is today. The plaza is a National Historic Landmark listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It buildings constructed in the Pueblo, Spanish, and Territorial styles reflect the diverse cultural history of Santa Fe. The Palace of the Governors on the north side of the Plaza is well worth a visit. Built in 1610, it is the oldest continuously occupied governmental building in the United States. Today, the palace is a National Historic Landmark and a museum.

What is the Old Spanish Trail Association?

The Old Spanish Trail Association is the main independent partner of the Old Spanish Trail, working with the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management. The association’s website features extensive information regarding trail visitation, including interactive maps, locations of interpretive plaques, local points of interest, and the answers to frequently asked questions.

Why did the Spanish attempt to connect the southern California coast to the growing trade center of Santa Fe fail?

Further Spanish attempts to connect the southern California coast to the growing trade center of Santa Fe failed due to the extreme terrain and weather. Interest in finding a passage increased after the 1821 establishment of the Santa Fe Trail, which successfully connected the eastern United States with the New Mexico trading hub at Santa Fe.

What states did the Spanish rule in 1821?

New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California. After Mexico became independent from Spanish rule in 1821, trade flourished between the eastern part of the United States and the vast western territory. Networks of trails developed as explorers, traders and settlers attempted to find safe passage through the treacherous, dry, …

What was the route that Armijo blazed?

Armijo’s group blazed a trade route utilizing a network of indigenous routes, parts of Jedediah Smith’s routes of 1826 and 1827, and Rafael Rivera’s route of 1828. Armijo avoided the worst of the Mojave Desert, traveling south of Death Valley following intermittent streams and locating springs to support the party.

What was the name of the trail that Frémont took?

Frémont’s Report created a sensation in Washington, already struck with Manifest Destiny fever. Frémont took the Spanish Trail across to Utah. People called the route by various names, but he called it the “Spanish Trail” in his Report, and that is the name that has been used ever since.

What was the Spanish Trail?

Americans became aware of the trail with the publication of John C. Frémont’s Report of his 1844 journey from California to the States, the return leg of his expedition to Oregon for the U.S. Topographical Corps. Frémont’s Report created a sensation in Washington, already struck with Manifest Destiny fever. Frémont took the Spanish Trail across to Utah. People called the route by various names, but he called it the “Spanish Trail” in his Report, and that is the name that has been used ever since. Recognizing that a large area of the interior desert had no connection to the sea, Fremont first called it the “Great Basin”, another name used ever since – in his report.

Where did the Mojave River and the Cajon Pass come together?

Several variants of these two routes were also used, but all came together in southern Utah, fanning out once again into separate trails from southern Nevada to southeastern California. They came together again at the Mojave River, which brought travelers to the Cajon Pass portal of southern California.

What did the opening of trade with California result in?

News of the opening of trade with California resulted in immediate commerce between Santa Fe and Los Angeles. With a few exceptions, pack trains made annual treks between New Mexico and California, bringing woven Mexican products to California, which lacked sheep, and bartering them for horses and mules, scarce in New Mexico. …

When was the Old Spanish Trail established?

The Old Spanish Trail became the fifteenth national historic trail when Congress adopted S. 1946 in November and President George W. Bush signed the bill early in December 2002. The Old Spanish Trail linked two provinces of Mexico separated by such difficult topography and climatic extremes that, despite attempts beginning as early as 1776, a route was successfully opened only in 1829. In that year Antonio Armijo, a merchant from Santa Fe, led approximately 60 men and a large mule caravan across a network of known trails blazed northward by trappers and traders with the Utes, and backtracked along the route Spanish padres Dominguez and Escalante recorded as they returned to Santa Fe from southern Utah more than fifty years earlier.

When was the Old Spanish Trail Recognition Act passed?

Early in 2002, Senator Campbell introduced S 1946, the Old Spanish Trail Recognition Act. In 2002, Congress passed the bill unanimously. Secretary of Interior Gale Norton assigned preparation of a Comprehensive Management Plan to both the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service; both agencies are now working on implementing this order, modeled on the approach that produced a plan for managing the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail in New Mexico. The Old Spanish Trail Association is eager to participate in the preparation of this plan.

What route did Armijo follow?

Along the Armijo Route. Armijo’s group then blazed a new path using parts of Jedediah Smith’s routes of 1826 and 1827, and Rafael Rivera’s route of 1828. Armijo avoided the worst of the Mojave Desert, traveling south of Death Valley following intermittent streams and locating springs to support the party.

What was the Spanish Trail?

This trail is a combination of known trails that were established by Spanish and European explorers,settlers, trappers and traders with the Jicarilla Apaches, Southern Utes and Navajos and other Indians throughout the region. The eastern areas of what became called the Old Spanish Trail, including SW Colorado and SE Utah, were explored by Juan Maria de Rivera in 1765. Franciscan missionaries Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante unsuccessfully attempted the trip to California, which was just being settled, leaving Santa Fe in 1776 and making it all the way into the Great Basin near Utah Lake before returning via the Arizona Strip. Other expeditions under another Franciscan missionary Francisco Garcés, and Captain Juan Bautista de Anza then explored and traded in the southern part of the region, finding shorter and less strenuous routes through the mountains and deserts which connected Sonora to New Mexico and California, but did not become part of the Old Spanish Trail, with the exception of some of the paths through the Mojave Desert. The middle part of the trail through Nevada and California was worked out by trappers led by Jedediah Smith in about 1827.

What happened to the Trail after the Mexican War?

After the Mexican War, wagon roads on competing routes largely ended use of the Trail.

How long is the Old Spanish Trail?

Not to be confused with the Old Spanish Trail Auto Trail (also referred to as the OST) which once spanned the country with a southern network of 3,000 miles (4,800 km) of roadway from ocean to ocean crossing 67 counties and eight states along the Southern border of the United States. This auto highway began in 1915 and, by …

When was the Spanish Trail passed?

The Old Spanish Trail became the 15 th national historic trail when Congress adopted S. 1946 in November and President George W. Bush signed the bill early in December 2002.

Where did the Spanish Trail start?

Two of these routes ran north-south along the eastern and western margins of the upper Rio Grande Valley, between the adobe pueblos of present-day New Mexico and Colorado’s San Luis Valley.

Where did the name Frémont and Carson come from?

The name of the trail comes from the acknowledgement of a trail that had already been known to the Spanish since the 17 th century and is in the publication of John C. Frémont’s Report of his 1844 journey for the U.S. Topographical Corps. guided by Kit Carson from California to New Mexico.

Why is the Old Spanish Trail named after the Gunter Hotel?

They chose the name Old Spanish Trail because it sounded romantic.

How long is the Old Spanish Trail?

The Old Spanish Trail in this article is an early automobile highway built about 100 years ago. It is sometimes known by the initials OST. It stretches 2,750 miles coast to coast all the way from St. Augustine, Florida to San Diego, California.

How many miles is the coast of Florida?

It stretches 2,750 miles coast to coast all the way from St. Augustine, Florida to San Diego, California.

What was the Spanish road movement?

The Good Roads Movement was an organization started in the 1870s that began to crusade for local, state, and national governments to build paved roads. Good Roads Magazine Cover, 1892.

Where was the Spanish Trail?

Augustine and Pensacola. When completed, the Old Spanish Trail traveled through 8 states and 67 counties along the southern border of the United States. The national headquarters of the highway was in San Antonio, Texas for many years.

Where to go on the Old Spanish Trail in Florida?

The best way to experience the Old Spanish Trail in Florida is to generally follow the route of US-90 across the northern part of the state.

Where was the first Lincoln Highway?

First was the Lincoln Highway from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco in 1913. Second was the Dixie Highway in 1915 from Canada through Chicago to Miami. Fisher was an auto parts millionaire, the owner of the Indianapolis 500 Speedway, and the developer of Miami Beach.

What was Armijo rewarded for?

After trading blankets and other goods, they returned to New Mexico and Armijo was rewarded by being made the “Commander for the Discovery of the Route to California.”. Word quickly spread about the successful trade expedition and regular trips began to be made by other traders. Some small-scale emigration also occurred along …

What is the Old Spanish Trail?

Old Spanish Trail – Trading Between New Mexico & California. Not nearly as well known as the Oregon or Santa Fe Trails, the Old Spanish Trail was a contemporary of these two more famous trails, but was primarily a trade route rather than an emigrant trail, as the path was too rough for wagons. Put together with pieces of previous routes utilized by …

Where did Armijo go in the Mojave Desert?

Armijo avoided the worst of the Mojave Desert, traveling south of Death Valley following intermittent streams and locating new springs to support the party. Though he arrived at San Gabriel Mission in California with his group intact, they were forced to rely on mule meat during their final days on the trail.

How long was the Santa Fe Trail?

Put together with pieces of previous routes utilized by the Indians and explorers, this extension of the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri to New Mexico, connected Santa Fe with California, playing a major factor in the development of the southern part of the state. Approximately 1,120 miles long, it ran through areas of high mountains, arid deserts, …

How long does it take to drive a caravan from Santa Fe to the desert?

A one-way journey might take from 1 ½ to 3 months.

When was the Spanish Trail recognized?

Beginning in the 1920s and continuing sporadically through the following decades, various states and associations began to mark portions of the old trail. In 2002, Congress passed the Old Spanish Trail Recognition Act and today is known as the Old Spanish National Historic Trail.

When did the New Mexico-California trade end?

New Mexico-California trade continued until the mid-1850s when a shift to the use of freight wagons and the development of wagon trails made the old pack trail route obsolete. The Old Spanish Trail officially lasted until 1848, when the territory it crossed became part of the United States. The Mexican War marked the official demise …